Fire smoke Damper Required in Commercial Buildings

What is the purpose of a fire damper?
Fire Dampers are used to maintain the required ratings of fire rated barriers (walls, partitions, floors) when they are penetrated by ductwork.
How does a fire damper work?
When a rise in temperature occurs a fire damper will close and prevent the spread of flame through the barrier. Dampers are typically curtain style that will close (shut) when a fusible link melts. The fusible link typically melts when the temperature rises to 165 degrees Fahrenheit. In some circumstances higher degree fusible links (e.g. 212°F) are installed in ductwork with consistently higher normal temperatures, such as hot decks in dual duct systems. Fire dampers are certified by Underwriters Laboratories (UL) to carry hourly fire resistance ratings, typically 1.5 to 3 hours.
What types of fire dampers exists?
Dynamic Fire Dampers – Dynamic Fire Damper is a damper that is approved for use where the HVAC System blower will remain on during an alarm (or “Fans On”). Dynamic fire dampers are rated to close against moving air.
Static Fire Dampers – Static Fire Damper is a damper that is approved for use where the HVAC System blower will cycle off during an alarm (or “Fans Off”).
What is the purpose of a smoke damper?
Smoke dampers are used is ductwork and air transfer openings that are designed to resist the passage of air and smoke. Smoke dampers may be required in smoke barriers and other smoke controlled systems.
How does a smoke damper work?
Typically smoke dampers are operated by smoke detectors in the ductwork that will close the smoke damper when smoke is detected. Smoke detectors often are hard wired to a central alarm panel in which the alarm will relay a signal to the smoke damper to cause smoke damper closure. The closure of smoke dampers are done by an actuator – the actuator is either electric or pneumatic. The actuator utilizes the jackshaft and linkage to open and close the blades of the smoke damper. Smoke dampers are UL certified with an air leakage class rating.
What is a Combination Fire and Smoke Damper?
These dampers are used in areas where both smoke and fire barriers are located to prevent the passage of both smoke and flames.
What is a Corridor Damper?
Corridors are means of egress travel to an exit. Corridor dampers are fire and smoke dampers that have been designed for use in corridors.
What is a Ceiling Damper?
Ceiling dampers lessen the passage of heat in fire resistance ceilings where ducts are made only through ceilings.
What is a fire barrier?
Fire barriers are fire-resistant rated horizontal or vertical assemblies designed to stop the spread of fire.
What is a smoke barrier?
Either vertical or horizontal, the smoke barrier is a continuous surface such as a wall, floor, or ceiling constructed to restrict the movement of smoke.
Fire Doors
What is a Fire Door?
A fire door, like a fire damper, is a method of passive fire protection used to prevent the spread of fire and smoke between fire barriers.
What are the main purposes of a fire door?
Serve as a regular door;
Provide ready egress during a fire;
Keep fire from spreading throughout a building;
Protect life and property
What determines a fire doors rating?
The fire rating of the wall that the door is installed determines the fire rating of the door.
What are typical wall rating / door rating usages?
Wall Rating Door Rating Description and Use
4 Hour 3 Hour These opening are in walls that separate building or divide a single building into designated fie areas.
2 Hour 1-1/2 Hour Openings of this type are used in enclosures of vertical communication or egress through buildings. Examples of these types include stairwells and elevator shafts
1 Hour 1 Hour These door assemblies divide occupancies in a building.
1 Hour 1/4 Hour For use where there are openings in corridors or room partitions.
2 Hour 1-1/2 Hour This openings is in a wall where there is the potential for severe fie exposure from the exterior of the building.
1 Hour 1/4 Hour This opening is in an exterior wall that has the potential to be exposed to moderate to light fire from the exterior of the building.
1 Hour 1/3 Hour These openings are in corridors where smoke and draft control is required. The minimum opening is 1 Hour.
When are fire doors needed?
Where a door leads to exit stairwells and horizontal exits.
Where a door leads to a hazardous area.
Where a door has an Exit sign around it.
Generally, where a door leads to a hallway or from one fully enclosed room to another.


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